A handy thing about microservice architectures is how easily you can inspect & override server-to-server API responses in local development. For example, updating your app for a planned-but-unimplemented API change.
Charles Proxy is particularly helpful here. We use Charles a lot in front-end development and debugging, so I’ll assume you’re already familiar with features like Breakpoints and Map Local to intercept and rewrite requests & responses. However, there are a couple of snags unique to the command line environment which can be a stumbling block when you’re trying to apply the same approach to server-side development.
Don’t be put off! It’s easy when you know how. 😄
Using an HTTP proxy on the command line
macOS proxy settings (set through Charles or via Network Preferences) are automatically applied to GUI applications – including most browsers – but they don’t extend to the command line.
By convention that’s remedied via the
https_proxy environment variables, which can point to the Charles HTTP Proxy in familiar
scheme://[[email protected]]host[:port] URI syntax, i.e. for most of us:
Applications that honor these variables then use the specified proxy when making HTTP/HTTPS requests. If you find it tedious to configure each time, Derek Morgan had the idea of using scutil output to set the variable automatically based on macOS proxy settings. I don’t do this, in part because of a problem Node makes:
Node’s proxy Got-cha
Some popular tools & libraries like Node & Got don’t honor the conventional
https_proxy environment variables.
For Node, the global-agent package provides the same functionality, hooking into Node’s
globalAgent configurations to add proxy support. It requires a little extra setup and has its own environment variables, all covered by its readme.
For older Node versions (< 12) global-tunnel serves a similar purpose.
Using self-signed certificates on the command line
Command line applications also don’t know about the certificates installed & trusted in the macOS System Keychain. They need to be configured into awareness of the Charles root certificate, otherwise proxied HTTPS requests will fail.
Ruby uses OpenSSL, which has an environment variable
SSL_CERT_FILE for this purpose. That variable can point to the exported Charles root certificate (Help > SSL Proxying > Save Charles Root Certificate…) when starting Rails:
env SSL_CERT_FILE="/path/to/cert.pem" rails s
Be aware: this configuration replaces the OpenSSL default, which will be a problem if the application makes HTTPS requests to hosts outside of Charles' configured SSL Proxying locations. This hasn’t been an issue for me, but it’s possible to configure a directory of multiple certificates to mix the default cert in.
Node makes this a little easier with an environment variable that’s specifically designed to take additional certificates instead of an override:
env NODE_EXTRA_CA_CERTS="/path/to/cert.pem" npm start
With these configurations in place, we can treat microservice APIs in Node & Rails just like we would in client applications. It’s a handy tool for debugging and rapid development.